Beatitude: Marx, Aristotle, Averroes, Spinoza
In this article I argue that Ernst Bloch was profoundly correct to identify a materialist philosophical tendency that runs from Aristotle, through Averrroes and Spinoza, to Marx. Recognizing this "Left Aristotelian" current allows us to see the influence of Aristotle's conception of happiness as eudaimonia or human "flourishing" on Averroes's and Spinoza's use of the term "beatitude." It also enables us better to understand what the early Marx means by "real happiness" and how the mature Marx in Capital conceives of a post-capitalist society based on the "association of free men." Finally, we can appreciate the importance of an Aristotelian account of "flourishing" for defending an ecosocialist position on sustainability.
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