A review on Innovation and Impotence in Fisheries Instruments: The Convention on the Conservation of Marine Living Resources 1980 and Fish Stocks Agreement 1995
Degree GrantorUniversity of Canterbury
Degree LevelPostgraduate Certificate
Degree NamePostgraduate Certificate in Antarctic Studies
Two international agreements instrumental in developing the concept of ecosystems based management and the precautionary approach are the 1995 Straddling and Migratory Fish Stocks Agreement1 (UNFSA) and the 1980 Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR). In many respects a framework agreement, the UNFSA requires Regional Fisheries Management Organisations to take into account ecosystems effects when making decisions on catch limits, drawing from the example of CCAMLR. The principle of caution in the face of limited information on the ecosystem is by no means universal in its application, primarily due to the scarcity of data and the difficulty in achieving consensus. However, the UNFSA has developed powerful measures to move away from flag state hegemony towards coastal and port state controls. CCAMLR has also failed to find effective enforcement mechanisms, the Catch Documentation Scheme and Vessel Monitoring Scheme both being manipulated in recent years. Future developments should focus on port state interventions, an area CCAMLR members continue to be negligent, and demand initiatives including the implementation of stricter export tariffs, strengthening criminal and civil penalties, educating consumers and perhaps most importantly, restricting the importation of threatened species.
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