Approaches to Wilderness and Aesthetic Values in a Domestic and International Context
Degree GrantorUniversity of Canterbury
Degree LevelPostgraduate Certificate
Degree NamePostgraduate Certificate in Antarctic Studies
Within the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty 1991 ('the MadridProtocol'�) there are a number of key terms which are not adequately defined. This deliberate'constructive ambiguity'� is useful in the process of reaching agreement between states with diversecultural and political values but less helpful when it comes to implementing its terms. Within thecontext of the Madrid Protocol, two such undefined terms are 'wilderness'� and 'aesthetic values'�which must be taken into account and protected from adverse impacts. Across the different treatyparty states there are differing levels of engagement with the matter of both 'wilderness'� and'aesthetic values'� both domestically and in an Antarctic context. Looking at New Zealand, the UnitedStates of America and China's approaches to 'wilderness'� shows three different levels of interactionwith the concept domestically and three different interpretations of the term within an Antarcticcontext. The same can be seen in other state's approaches, though it is beyond the scope of thispaper to address this. In terms of 'aesthetic values'�, different methodologies for quantifying thevisual worth of a landscape are employed by different states but with an emerging theme of publicconsultation. Both terms have not yet been actively engaged with on a wide scale within theAntarctic Treaty System, but certain themes can be ascertained across the approaches of the variousstates.
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