Review of the 1991 Madrid Protocol
Degree GrantorUniversity of Canterbury
Degree LevelPostgraduate Certificate
Degree NamePostgraduate Certificate in Antarctic Studies
In an environment as fragile and influential as Antarctica, protection and preservationguidelines form an important part of human interaction and governance. As the AntarcticTreaty system developed over the 20th Century, environmental issues moved to the forefrontof the international discussion. Signed in 1991 and ratified in 1998, the Protocol onEnvironmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was viewed as a ground-breaking legaldocument, with the capability of enhancing the protection of the Antarctic environmentthrough a comprehensive ecosystem approach. Today, the Protocol is met with significantcriticism around issues of implementation, human impacts, and its ability to meet new anddistinct environmental challenges. In this review, the successes and failures of the MadridProtocol will be examined, with the literature showing widespread discontent with theProtocol's environmental capabilities. These perspectives reflect an increasing urgency aroundthe need for changes to be made to the Treaty system, in order to maintain the Antarcticenvironment for future scientific research, tourism, and other human related activities.
- Literature Reviews