Molecular Switches: The Design, Synthesis and Biological Applications of Photoactive Enzyme Inhibitors (2006)
AuthorsAlexander, Nathan Austinshow all
This thesis examines the design, synthesis and biological applications of a series of inhibitors which incorporate an azobenzene photoswitch, a peptidyl backbone and a trifluoromethyl ketone warhead. The photoswitch can be isomerised by irradiation with UV or visible light and has been employed to modulate the reactivity of the enzyme. Chapter one gives a brief outline of some of the important areas related to this work. Examples of previously utilised photoswitches as well as some background on serine protease and the uses of fluorine in medicine has been covered. Chapter two outlines the synthesis of the key trifluoromethyl carbinol 2.6 by two different methods. The condensation of a fluorinated aldehyde with a nitroalkane affords an α-nitro trifluoromethyl carbinol which can be reduced to give the desired amine 2.6. Treatment of oxazolones with trifluoroacetic anhydride via a modified Dakin-West reaction gives trifluoromethyl ketones which can be reduced to give trifluoromethyl carbinols. Chapter three investigate the synthesis of substituted stilbenes and phenanthrenes as alternative molecular switches to azobenzenes. Molecular modelling of phenanthrenes suggests they may be suitable mimics of E-azobenzenes. Chapter four outlines the synthesis of a series of mono and disubstituted azobenzenes by direct sulfonation of azobenzene or by condensation of nitroso arenes with aryl amines. The switches incorporate one or two peptidyl residues designed to improve specificity towards the enzyme. Chapter five examines the photoisomerisation of eight potential inhibitors by irradiating with UV or visible light. Irradiation with UV light enriches the sample to give 78-93 % of the Z-isomer. Irradiation with visible light gave photostationary states with 14-21 % Z-isomer. Ambient photostationary states are ca. 22 % Z-isomer. Chapter six looks at the testing of five trifluoromethyl ketones as potential inhibitors ofα-chymotrypsin. The inhibitors vary in substituents, substitution patterns and chain length. The inhibitors were tested at both ambient and Z-enriched photostationary states and were found to exhibit slow binding kinetics. In all cases the Z-enriched inhibitor solution was at least 3-fold more potent than the ambient solution. Chapter seven is an experimental chapter and outlines the synthesis of the compounds prepared in this thesis.