Seismic vulnerability of pile–supported wharves considering recurrent liquefaction–induced damage
To develop damage state–dependent seismic fragility functions for pile wharves supported on liquefiable soil. Seaports in seismically active regions may often undergo strong aftershocks following a mainshock event. Due to the short time interval between events in such a seismic sequence, retrofit interventions are often impossible; as a result, the aftershock acts in already damaged structures. Pile–supported wharves are particularly vulnerable to such seismic sequences with the main cause of damage being the liquefaction of soft underlying soils and/or hydraulic backfills.