Using distraction to reduce venepuncture pain and distress in school aged children : the role of the parents', nurses' and the child's voice: a review of the literature.
Thesis DisciplineHealth Sciences
Degree GrantorUniversity of Canterbury
Degree NameMaster of Health Sciences
Venepuncture is reported by children as the most feared aspect of attending hospital. A minor, yet painful, procedure that has been associated with increased levels of distress in children. Distraction, a cognitive-behavioural approach is used as an adjunct to pharmacological methods of pain management in attempt to lower levels of venepuncture pain and distress. This literature review examines the efficacy of distraction strategies and also examines the role of parents’ and nurses’ in distraction. In addition, factors that influence and hinder the use of distraction will be examined. A significant gap that emerged from the literature was in relation to the child’s voice. Nurses should view patient choice as an integral part of decision making for choosing appropriate distraction techniques.