A geology-based 3D seismic velocity model of Canterbury, New Zealand
This paper presents a seismic velocity model of Canterbury, New Zealand based on 3D geologic surfaces and velocities from a range of data sources. The model provides the 3D crustal structure in the region at multiple length scales for seismic wave propagation simulations, such as broadband ground motion and shallow site response analyses related to understanding the ground motions and site responses during the 2010- 2011 Canterbury earthquakes. Pre-Quaternary geologic horizons are calculated based on the reinterpretation of a comprehensive network of seismic reflection surveys from seven different campaigns over the past 50 years, as well as point constraints across an array of petroleum industry drill holes. Particular attention is given to a detailed representation of Quaternary stratigraphy, representing shallow (z<250m) near-surface layers in the model. Seismic velocities are obtained from seismic reflection processing (for Vp) and also recently performed active and passive surface wave analyses (for Vs). Over 1,700 water wells in the region are used to constrain the complex inter-bedded Quaternary stratigraphy (gravels, sands, silts, organics etc.) near the coastline, including beneath urban Christchurch, which has resulted from fluvial deposition and marine regression and transgression. For the near-surface Springston and Christchurch Formations in the Christchurch urban area (z<50m), high-spatial resolution seismic velocities (including Vs30 ) were obtained from over 13,000 cone penetration tests combined with a recently developed CPT-Vs correlation.