Synthesis and characterization of amino acid ionic liquids and low symmetry ionic liquids based on the triaminocyclopropenium cation.
Degree GrantorUniversity of Canterbury
Degree NameDoctor of Philosophy
This thesis involves the synthesis of two main classes of triaminocyclopropenium (tac) Ionic Liquids (ILs) (i) Amino Acid Ionic Liquids (AAILs) and (ii) reduced-symmetry cations. [C₃(NEt₂)₂(NRR’)]X (X = TFSA and MeSO₄) were prepared, whereby NHR is derived from amino acids. Optically pure AAILs, [E₄AminoAcid]X (X = TFSA and MeSO₄) were obtained as a mixture of the IL and its zwitterion. The ratios of these mixtures were determined by pH titration and microanalysis. The AAILs specific rotations and pKa values were determined. AAILs can be used for chiral discrimination and form diasterreomeric salts with the entioenriched sodium salt of Mosher’s acid. The AAILs were also successfully used as a solvent and/or catalyst in an aldol reaction and a Diels-Alder reaction. The low-molecular weight series, [C₃(NMe₂)₂(NRR’)]X and [C₃(NMe₂)₂(NR’2)]X was synthesized and characterized: protic ILs NRR’, where R = ethyl, propyl, allyl, butyl, - CH2CH2OCH₃ and pentyl, R’ = H and X = TFSA: and aprotic ILs NRR’, where R = Me, R’ = ethyl, allyl, propyl, butyl, -CH2CH2OCH₃ and hexyl and X = TFSA and DCA. ILs with C2v symmetry [C₃(NEt₂)₂(NH2)]X (X = TFSA and MeSO₄), [C₃(NEt₂)₂(NBu2)]I, [C₃(NEt₂)₂(NHex₂)]I and [C₃(NEt₂)₂(NHex₂)]OTf were also synthesized and characterized. The C₃h cations, [C₃(NMeR)₃]X (R = ethyl, allyl, -CH2CH2OCH₃ and phenyl, X = TFSA and DCA) were successfully prepared as well. The D₃h cation salts [C₃(NEt₂)₃]X (X = MeC6H4SO₃, OTf, I and F5C6O) and [C₃(NBu2)₃]X (X = B(CN)4 and FAP) were also prepared. The tac-based ILs [C₃(NEt₂)₃]+ and [C₃(NBu2)₃]+ were also complexed with metal halides
- - 2- 2-
forming salts with FeCl₄ , SnCl₃ , CuCl₄ and ZnCl₄ . Reaction of pentachlorocyclopropane (C₃Cl5H) with BuNH2 gave the open ring allylium product [H2C₃(NBuH)4]2+. This was characterized as Cl- and TFSA- salt. During the synthesis of [C₃(NMe₂)₃]Cl, the open ring cation [HC₃(NMe₂)4]+ was also isolated and was characterized as the TFSA- salt.
The TGA, DSC, density, viscosity, conductivity, and molar conductivity properties for the ILs were measured where possible. The viscosity and conductivity data was fitted for the Arrhenius and Vogel-Fulcher Tamman equations. The entire tac-based ILs lie below the KCl ideal line in Walden plot. A fragility plot was obtained by fitting the viscosity data and all the tac-based ILs were fragile. The crystal structures of [C₃(NPhH)₃]TFSA, [C₃(NEt₂)₃]FeCl₄ and [HC₃(NMe₂)4]Cl.2CH₃Cl were determined.