Massacre, Earthquake, Flood (2021)
Abstract. Natural (e.g., earthquake, flood, wildfires) and human-made (e.g., terrorism, civil strife) disasters are inevitable, can cause extensive disruption, and produce chronic and disabling psychological injuries leading to formal diagnoses (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD]). Following natural disasters of earthquake (Christchurch, Aotearoa/New Zealand, 2010–11) and flood (Calgary, Canada, 2013), controlled research showed statistically and clinically significant reductions in psychological distress for survivors who consumed minerals and vitamins (micronutrients) in the following months. Following a mass shooting in Christchurch (March 15, 2019), where a gunman entered mosques during Friday prayers and killed and injured many people, micronutrients were offered to survivors as a clinical service based on translational science principles and adapted to be culturally appropriate. In this first translational science study in the area of nutrition and disasters, clinical results were reported for 24 clients who completed the Impact of Event Scale – Revised (IES-R), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS), and the Modified-Clinical Global Impression (M-CGI-I). The findings clearly replicated prior controlled research. The IES-R Cohen’s d ESs were 1.1 (earthquake), 1.2 (flood), and 1.13 (massacre). Effect sizes (ESs) for the DASS subscales were also consistently positive across all three events. The M-CGI-I identified 58% of the survivors as “responders” (i.e., self-reported as “much” to “very much” improved), in line with those reported in the earthquake (42%) and flood (57%) randomized controlled trials, and PTSD risk reduced from 75% to 17%. Given ease of use and large ESs, this evidence supports the routine use of micronutrients by disaster survivors as part of governmental response.
CitationRucklidge JJ, Afzali MU, Kaplan BJ, Bhattacharya O, Blampied FM, Mulder RT, Blampied NM (2021). Massacre, Earthquake, Flood. International Perspectives in Psychology. 10(1). 39-54.
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Keywordsdisasters; psychological injuries; micronutrients; earthquake; flood; mass shooting
ANZSRC Fields of Research52 - Psychology::5203 - Clinical and health psychology::520304 - Health psychology
52 - Psychology::5202 - Biological psychology::520205 - Psychopharmacology
42 - Health sciences::4203 - Health services and systems::420313 - Mental health services
RightsAll rights reserved unless otherwise stated
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