Self-employment as a strategy for Indian immigrants' settlement in New Zealand (2020)
Type of ContentTheses / Dissertations
Degree NameDoctor of Philosophy
PublisherUniversity of Canterbury
AuthorsGautam, Sunitashow all
As the research on immigrant entrepreneurship has evolved, so too has immigrants' profile, many of whom wish to become entrepreneurs. In contrast to ‘traditional’ immigrants, more recent immigrants typically have new qualifications, skills, and resources. Traditional immigrant entrepreneurship researchers have developed many theories and models to explain this phenomenon, including cultural theory (Peters, 2002), middleman theory (Blalock, 1967), disadvantage theory (Light, 1979), the interactive model (Aldrich & Waldinger, 1990), the opportunity structure theory (Fernandez & Kim, 1998), ethnic enclave theory (Portes, 1987; Wilson & Portes, 1980), the ethnoburb model (Wei 2014; 1998) and the mixed embeddedness approach (Kloosterman, 2003; Kloosterman, 2004).
These traditional perspectives are now outdated, and a significant amount of time has elapsed since the original immigrant entrepreneurship theories were formulated. Therefore, it is time to reconsider what we know about immigrant entrepreneurship. This thesis investigates the phenomenon of immigrant entrepreneurship, based on recent immigrants’ entrepreneurial experiences.
In the quest for a new understanding of the immigrant entrepreneurship theories, this research conducted a case study method, utilising 30 semi-structured interviews with current immigrant entrepreneurs. This research specifically aggregates the concepts of immigrant entrepreneurship to assess their relevance for the modern-day. This method leads to developing a theoretical framework that is further assessed and measured against the real-world settings of Indian immigrant entrepreneurs (IndIErs) in New Zealand. This research also produced an Indian immigrant entrepreneurship (IndIErp) model that explains the transition process of current Indian immigrant entrepreneurs (IndIErs) into entrepreneurship.
In particular, it uses a case study approach to examine the experiences of IndIErs residing in New Zealand. This research investigates the contribution immigrant entrepreneurs make and reconsiders the theories that attempt to explain entrepreneurship. It provides vital information on how Indian immigrants integrate into and contribute to the entrepreneurial sector of New Zealand. The findings are useful for policymakers such as the Immigration Department, the Chamber of Commerce, Ministry of Business, Innovation, and Employment (MBIE) and relevant government agencies (such as BIZ offered by New Zealand Trade & Enterprise, 2010) aspiring immigrant entrepreneurs, social researchers exploring immigrant settlement phenomena, or entrepreneurial theories. Moreover, this research fills the gap in immigrant entrepreneurship's research field by focusing on a single ethnic group in New Zealand (Yamamura & Lassalle, 2019; Zhou, 2004).